Toys in Europe Manufacture, imports and distribution of Toys: European Toy Safety Directive 2009/48/EC European Union manufacturers, authorised representatives of a manufacturer, importers and distributors of toys intended for children must comply with the provisions of the national law (in the UK, the Toys (Safety) Regulations 2011 for toys placed on the market after 19 … Read more

Cross-Border Transfer of Foundations

Cross-Border Transfer of Foundations in Europe Cross-Border Transfer of the Real Seat Problems can arise in Member States that apply a conflict of laws principle commonly referred to as the “real seat doctrine” (Sitztheorie or siège réel doctrine), or a variation thereof, for purposes of […]

Competition Procedure

TFEU arts 101 and 102 set out the rules applicable to undertakings. These rules prohibit: Agreements, decisions and concerted practices which: (1) affect trade between member states; or (2) prevent, restrict or distort competition within the internal market. Abuse of a dominant position […]

European Integration

Published in: Encyclopedia of Law and Society: American and Global Perspectives. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi, 2004. Author: Francis G. Snyder See more here: and here (in general): […]

General Index

This page is the overall index to the European Encyclopedia of Law; any page can ideally be reached directly or indirectly from this page. Note that the index is still somewhat incomplete. Europe: Akrotiri and Dhekelia • Åland • Albania • Andorra • Armenia • Austria • Azerbaijan • Belarus • Belgium • Bosnia and … Read more