Czech Republic Criminal Justice System

Czech Republic Criminal Justice System This entry gives a general account of the overall criminal system and outline the political and legal structure and the history of the Czech Republic criminal justice system to help account for the unique aspects that may help to bind the many parts of this criminal justice system together, and … Read more

Principle of Good Faith in Contract Law

The Principle of Good Faith in Contract Law European Contract Law German law There are considerable differences in European attitudes towards good faith as a legal principle. This is most graphically illustrated if one compares German law with the common law of England. Section 242 of the German Civil Code provides that the obligor must … Read more

Claim to Performance in Contractual Law

The Claim to Performance in Contractual Law In the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL) The issue Most contracts contain a promise of performance. One party undertakes to provide goods, rights or services, and the other side undertakes to pay a sum of money in return. If one party reneges on his promise, however, the … Read more

Papal Decrees

Papal Decrees Gelasius: On the Two Powers Gelasius I on Spiritual and Temporal Power, 494 Letter of Pope Gelasius to Emperor Anastasius on the superiority of the spiritual over temporal power: The pope’s view of the natural superiority of the spiriitual over the temporal power finds a clear expression the following remarkable letter of Gelasius … Read more

Ecumenical Councils

Ecumenical Councils Ecumenical and General Church Councils Note: this is a useful, if denominationally partisan, article from the Catholic Encyclopedia. Councils are legally convened assemblies of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts for the purpose of discussing and regulating matters of church doctrine and discipline. The terms council and synod are synonymous, although in the oldest … Read more