Communist Rule

Communist Rule in Europe Communism in Eastern Europe Communist Rule The transition to communism in Eastern Europe took several years to complete. At first, local communist parties governed as part of multiparty coalition governments. But in 1947 and 1948 Soviet tolerance of political diversity […]


Conservatism in Europe Conservatism Conservatism in Europe Many conservative movements and groups have flourished in continental Europe, but no conservative parties similar to the British model in organization, doctrine, mass membership, and attachment to parliamentary democracy have ever […]

Soviet Collapse

Soviet Collapse in Europe Communism in the Soviet Union Gorbachev’s Reforms and the Soviet Collapse Brezhnev died in November 1982. Two elderly members of the Politburo, Yuri Andropov, a former head of the KGB, and Konstantin Chernenko, a crony of Brezhnev’s, filled his shoes for the next […]

Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels in Europe Communism The Ideas of Marx and Engels It was the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that laid the conceptual foundation for the communist revolutions and regimes of the 20th century. Marx and Engels were German-born intellectuals who worked in various cities in […]

Jean Jacques Regis De Cambaceres

Jean Jacques Regis de Cambaceres in Europe Cambaceres Jean Jacques Regis de Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (1753-1824), French statesman and jurist, born in Montpellier. Educated as a lawyer, Cambacérès became president of the criminal court in Montpellier in 1791. During the French […]

Tobias Michael Carel Asser

Tobias Michael Carel Asser in Europe Asser Tobias Michael Carel Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838-1913), Dutch statesman, jurist, and Nobel laureate, born in Amsterdam. He became professor of law at the Athenaeum in Amsterdam in 1862 and at the University of Amsterdam in 1876. In 1893 he became […]

Communist Influence In Western European Parties

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe Other Western European Parties The strongest Western European parties, other than the Italian and French, have been those of Greece, Finland, Portugal, and Spain. The Greek and Portuguese parties mirrored the intransigence […]