Charles De Gaulle

Charles De Gaulle in Europe Charles De Gaulle History General, and President of France between 1958-1969. Made his name as leader of the Free French during the Second World War. Gave independence to all France's African colonies, and lost the war in Algeria. Blocked the United Kingdom's first […]

Georges Pompidou

Georges Pompidou in Europe Georges Pompidou History French statesman, premier and president. Helped de Gaulle draft the constitution for the Fifth Republic, negotiated a settlement in the Algerian War, and played a key role in settling the political crisis of 1968. Elected President following […]


Berlin in Europe Battle of Berlin History Two Soviet army groups attacked Berlin from the east and south in late April 1945, while a third overran German forces north of Berlin. Adolf Hitler and some of his followers committed suicide during the battle, which led to the city’s surrender on 2 […]

National Supervisory Authorities

National Supervisory Authorities in Europe National Supervisory Authorities (NSAs) and the Public Sector Information A data protection authority is an independent body which is in charge of monitoring the processing of personal data within its jurisdiction (country, region or international […]

Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco in Europe Francisco Franco History Spanish Head of State from 1939-1975. Led the nationalists in the civil war against the elected left-wing government between 1936-1939. Established a Fascist regime. Kept Spain out of the Second World War, claiming the country was too […]

Article 29 Working Party

Article 29 Working Party in Europe Article 29 Working Party and the Public Sector Information The Article 29 Working Party is the short name of the Data Protection Working Party established by Article 29 of Directive 95/46/EC. It provides the European Commission with independent advice on data […]

Marginal cost pricing

Marginal cost pricing in Europe Marginal cost pricing and the Public Sector Information With marginal cost pricing we intend the application of charges aimed at recouping only marginal costs of reproduction and dissemination (the latter therefore representing a cap for charges). Under this […]