Football in Europe
Description of Football
The Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union describes football in the following terms:  The 1995 ‘Bosman ruling’ of the Court of Justice (named after a Belgian footballer) held that professional football, as an economic activity, was subject to Treaty law on free movement of services. It banned quotas limiting the number of players from other member states eligible to play in club competitions. The ruling also enabled players to negotiate their own terms of transfer, breaking the ability of clubs to collect large transfer fees on players whose contracts had expired. The resulting increase in the remuneration of star players helped to widen the gap between rich and poor clubs, leading to the creation of a cosmopolitan Europe-wide super-league.
Football Fans’ Public Communication: a Study in Communicative Deviance
Stelios Stylianou, from the Cyprus University of Technology, made a contribution to the 2012 Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology, in the category “Traditional and New Forms of Crime and Deviance,” under the title “Football Fans’ Public Communication: a Study in Communicative Deviance”. Here is the abstract: This study is extracted from a project that aimed at understanding the communicative behavior of association football fans in Cyprus, with emphasis on the use of text and other symbols in deviant and conventional ways. The presentation is based on qualitative data, specifically, web content, interview texts, field notes and photographs. A classification of meaning is attempted predominantly by inductive conceptualization. Two categories of meaningpositive and negativeform the upper classes with a various subcategories. Special attention is paid to negative (i.e., oppositional) messages which aim at the disreputation of the opponent and at winning the “communicative game”. At surface level, the target is the opposite team and its fans and the communication, although often vulgar, is otherwise socially irrelevant. In terms of latent content, these messages are often political and rather conservative, containing common prejudices such as those against women, homosexuals and prostitutes. It is concluded that, however deviant, as a violation of communicative norms, this communication reflects common elements of the dominant normative culture.
Football Supporters Between Freedom and Security
Susanne Knickmeier, from the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, made a contribution to the 2012 Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology, in the category “Crime Prevention,” under the title “Football Supporters Between Freedom and Security”. Here is the abstract: The Treaty of Amsterdam postulates to establish the EU as an area of freedom, security and justice. In its programmes for internal security like the Stockholm Programme the Council of the EU emphasises the importance of appropriate measures to the prevention and combating of crime. To produce security and to prevent criminal activities at football matches with international dimension European police authorities have developed their cross-border cooperation. They exchange data and operate on the basis of risk analysis not only to prevent criminal offences, but to identify risk supporters. The presentation focuses on the (legal) improvement of the exchange of information between European police authorities, especially the supply of data in relation to football supporters, and their use for risk analysis. In this context the consequences for the constitutional state and the effectiveness of European criminal policy are defined and alternative political ideas are discussed.
- “Football Supporters Between Freedom and Security”, by Susanne Knickmeier (Proceedings)
- “Football Fans’ Public Communication: a Study in Communicative Deviance”, by Stelios Stylianou (Proceedings)
Notas y References
- Based on the book “A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union from Aachen to Zollverein”, by Rodney Leach (Profile Books; London)