Hard Core

Hard Core in Europe

Description of Hard core

The Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union describes hard core in the following terms: [1] Germany, France and the Benelux countries, which before the launch of the euro in 1999 formed a de facto hard currency bloc based on the D-Mark. These countries were regarded in German circles as the bedrock of EMU, in contrast with the supposedly less austere ‘Club Med’ countries of Europe’s southern seaboard. In more general terms, the ‘hard core’ refers to any group of EUmember states that is prepared to push ahead with integration, leaving others to be excluded or to catch up later (see more in this European encyclopedia). (See also Variable geometry.)


Notas y References

  1. Based on the book “A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union from Aachen to Zollverein”, by Rodney Leach (Profile Books; London)

See Also

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