Western European Union

Introduction to Western European Union Western European Union (WEU), association of European countries focused on defense and security issues. The WEU grew out of the Brussels Treaty, a cooperative agreement made in 1948 between the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, and […]

Western Europe Legal Systems

Western Legal Systems in Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal … Read more

Prescription Charges in Austria

Prescription Charges in Austria Background Health care in Austria is based around a compulsory social insurance system with contributions from employees and employers. The system covers 99% of Austrians, with 74% actually making payments, and 25% being co-insured spouses, children and other dependants. The remaining 1% is covered by institutions caring for the sick. The … Read more

Notaries in Austria

Notaries in Austria Legal Framework The profession of Notaries in Austria Austrian notaries, like many of their European counter parts on the continent, belong to the “latin-type” of the notarial profession, often referred to as the “civil law notary”. This means that they are independent professionals who advise private parties and draft contracts on their … Read more

Austria

Austria in Europe According to the work "Guide to Foreign and International Citations", by the Journal of International Law and Politics (New York University School of Law): "The Constitution of 1920 (Bundesverfassungsgesetz – reinstated in 1945) distributes authority […]

Bailiffs in Austria

Bailiffs in Austria Professional Activities and Legal Framework The institution of Gerichtsvollzieher in Austria is a court matter. Gerichtsvollzieher are considered to be public civil servants and they do not act as an independent profession. Functions and powers of the Gerichtsvollzieher Activities of enforcement, which are not reserved for judge or judicial officials (Rechtsfleger) are … Read more

Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods in Austria

UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in Austria in Europe Note: For information on the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods in general, see here. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) Austrian […]

Western Europe

Western Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal System Liechtenstein Legal … Read more

Consular Legislation

Consular Legislation in Europe European Union Materials For information about European Union consular legislation, click here. In Austria Read in this legal Encyclopedia for information about consular law in Austria. In Germany Read in this legal Encyclopedia for information about […]

European Convention On State Immunity

Definition of European Convention On State Immunity In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of European Convention On State Immunity : An international convention of 1972 setting out when and how member states of the European Community (now the European Union) […]

European Commission of Human Rights

European Convention on Human Rights: the European Commission of Human Rights Introduction to European Commission of Human Rights The commission can only deal with a claim if all domestic remedies have been exhausted, unless a state waives the benefit of this rule. Local remedies do not have to […]

Croatia-Slavonia

Croatia-Slavonia in Europe Historical Legal Issues Amid the strife of rival claimants to the throne, Helena, the widow of Stephen II, appealed for aid to her brother Ladislaus I., king of Hungary. Ladislaus took possession of the country in 1091. He founded the bishopric of Agram and […]

European Diplomats

Introduction to European Diplomats European Diplomats, ambassadors, ministers, and bureaucrats who conduct the foreign policy of European nations. (1) Resources Notes and References Information about European Diplomats in the Encarta Online Encyclopedia Guide to European Diplomats More Topics […]

Communist Influence In Western European Parties

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe Other Western European Parties The strongest Western European parties, other than the Italian and French, have been those of Greece, Finland, Portugal, and Spain. The Greek and Portuguese parties mirrored the intransigence […]

Communist Influence In Western Europe

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe The communist parties of Western Europe were all established between 1918 and 1923, following the Russian Revolutions. They were responsive to Soviet directives, yet at the same time drew on European socialist roots going […]

List of European Courts

Benelux Court of Justice Court of First Instance of the European Communities Court of Justice of the European Communities European Court of Human Rights European Free Trade Agreement Court Benelux Court of Justice Court Of Justice of the Benelux Economic Union The […]

Western European Tribunals

History of Western European Tribunals Medieval courts were an outgrowth of the tribal courts of the Germanic peoples, among whom the highest judicial authority was that of the popular assemblies that met regularly throughout the year. The tribal judges supervised the proceedings and […]

Principles of European Contract Law

Principles of European Contract Law (Commision on European Contract Law) 2 25 May 2002 PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN CONTRACT LAW TEXT OF ARTICLES IN PART 3, IN ENGLISH CHAPTER 10 Plurality of parties Section 1: Plurality of debtors ARTICLE 10:101: SOLIDARY, SEPARATE AND […]

European Caselaw Databases

JURE, a database created by the European Commission, contains case law on jurisdiction in civil and commercial matters and on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in a State other than the one where the judgment was passed. This includes case law on relevant international […]

Karl Renner

Karl Renner in Europe Karl Renner (1870-1950), Austrian politician and first President of the country, was born on Dec. 14 1870, the son of a peasant, at Unter-Tannowitz, Moravia. He studied law at the university of Vienna, occupying himself especially with questions of administration, and […]

Constitutional Text: Austria 1945, Amendments 1986,1987,1988,1990, 1992 and 1993

Constitutional Text: Amendments of 1986,1987,1988,1990, 1992 and 1993 to the Austria Constitution of 1945 in Europe 1986 AMENDMENT TO AUSTRIA‚ÄôS CONSTITUTION OF 1945 APRIL 24, 1986 212. Federal constitutional law of April 4, 1986, amending the federal constitutional law of 1929 (amendment to […]