Western European Union

Introduction to Western European Union Western European Union (WEU), association of European countries focused on defense and security issues. The WEU grew out of the Brussels Treaty, a cooperative agreement made in 1948 between the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, and […]

Western Europe Legal Systems

Western Legal Systems in Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal … Read more

Eastern Europe Legal Systems

Eastern Legal Systems in Europe They are: Albanian Legal System Belarus Legal System Bosnia & Herzegovina Legal System Bulgarian Legal System Croatian Legal System Cyprus Legal System Czech Republic Legal System Estonian Legal System Greece Legal System Hungarian Legal System Latvian Legal System Lithuanian Legal System Macedonian Legal System Moldova Legal System Polish Legal System … Read more

European Court of Human Rights

European Convention on Human Rights: European Court of Human Rights Introduction to European Court of Human Rights The European Court of Human Rights is composed of a number of judges equal to the number of members of the Council of Europe. The majority of cases referred to the court come from […]

Notaries in Greece

Notaries in Greece Professional activities The SIMVOLAIOGOROS is the public notary who authenticates and preserves important personal and commercial documents. Although he offers a public service , he is considered an independent practitioner who assist in the administration of justice. A person whishing to be appointed as a Simvolaiogoros must possess an University degree and … Read more

Lawyers in Greece

Lawyers in Greece Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer: DIKIGOROS All practitioners are lawyers without distinction between functions. The DIKIGOROS can give advice and assistance on any aspect of Greek law. The dikigoros can be considered a rough equivalent of an English barrister and solicitor combined. The regulation of the legal profession is based on the … Read more

Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Legal Systems Albanian Legal System Belarus Legal System Bosnia & Herzegovina Legal System Bulgarian Legal System Croatian Legal System Cyprus Legal System Czech Republic Legal System Estonian Legal System Greece Legal System Hungarian Legal System Latvian Legal System Lithuanian Legal System Macedonian Legal System Moldova Legal System Polish Legal System Romanian … Read more

Draco’s Law Code

Draco’s Law Code in Europe This Athenian code was written in 621/620 BCE, and it is preserved because of the inclusion by Aristotle in his work The Athenian Constitution. Some examples: …political rights (in Athens) can only belong to those that carry weapons. These rights are […]

Western Europe

Western Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal System Liechtenstein Legal … Read more

Demosthenes

Demosthenes in Europe Life and Work Demosthenes, the great Attic orator and statesman, was born in 384 (or 383) B.C. His father, who bore the same name, was an Athenian citizen belonging to the deme of Paeania. His mother, Cleobule, was the daughter of Gylon, a citizen who had been active in […]

Corfu

Corfu in Europe Historical Legal Issues The common form of laud tenure is the colonia perpetua, by which the landlord grants a lease to the tenant and his heirs for ever, in return for a rent, payable in kind, and fixed at a certain proportion of the produce. Of old, a tenant thus […]

Isaeus

Isaeus in Europe Life and Work Isaeus (c. 420 b.c.-c. 350 b.c.), Attic orator, the chronological limits of whose extant work fall between the years 390 and 353 b.c., is described in the Plutarchic life as a Chalcidian; by Suidas, whom Dionysius follows, as an Athenian. The accounts have been […]

Herald

Herald in Europe Herald (O. Fr. heraut, herault; the origin is uncertain, but O.H.G. heren, to call, or hariwald, leader of an army, have been proposed; the Gr. equivalent is κῆρυξ: Lat. praeco, caduceator, fetialis), in Greek and Roman antiquities, the term for the officials described below; […]

Creta

Creta in Europe Historical Legal Issues Minos was a king of Cnossus in Crete; he was a son of Zeus, and enjoyed through life the privilege of habitual intercourse with his divine father. It was from this source that he derived the wisdom which enabled him to give to the Cretans the […]

Leptines

Leptines in Europe Leptines, an Athenian orator, known as the proposer of a law that no Athenian, whether citizen or resident alien (with the sole exception of the descendants of Harmodius and Aristogeiton), should be exempt from the public charges (λειτουργίαι) for the state festivals. The […]

Consular Legislation

Consular Legislation in Europe European Union Materials For information about European Union consular legislation, click here. In Austria Read in this legal Encyclopedia for information about consular law in Austria. In Germany Read in this legal Encyclopedia for information about […]

Basilica

Basilica in Europe Basilica, a code of law, drawn up in the Greek language, with a view to putting an end to the uncertainty which prevailed throughout the East Roman empire in the 9th century as to the authorized sources of law. This uncertainty had been brought about by the conflicting […]

Working Party on Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Working Party on Eastern Europe and Central Asia (COEST) The Working Party on Eastern Europe and Central Asia deals with all aspects of EU relations and cooperation with countries in Eastern Europe (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Russia and Ukraine) and Central Asia […]

European Convention On State Immunity

Definition of European Convention On State Immunity In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of European Convention On State Immunity : An international convention of 1972 setting out when and how member states of the European Community (now the European Union) […]

Antiphon

Antiphon in Europe Antiphon, of Rhamnus in Attica, the earliest of the “ten” Attic orators, was born in 480 b.c. He took an active part in political affairs at Athens, and, as a zealous supporter of the oligarchical party, was largely responsible for the establishment of the Four Hundred in […]

European Integration

Published in: Encyclopedia of Law and Society: American and Global Perspectives. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi, 2004. Author: Francis G. Snyder See more here: http://www.estig.ipbeja.pt/~ac_direito/dreaisrevistasest.html and here (in general): […]

European Commission of Human Rights

European Convention on Human Rights: the European Commission of Human Rights Introduction to European Commission of Human Rights The commission can only deal with a claim if all domestic remedies have been exhausted, unless a state waives the benefit of this rule. Local remedies do not have to […]

Enlargement of the European Union

In the 1950s, the EU began with just six member states. It now has 27. Growth in EU membership is known as ‘enlargement’, and it has happened several times. Date and New Members: 1950           Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands 1973           Denmark, […]

European Diplomats

Introduction to European Diplomats European Diplomats, ambassadors, ministers, and bureaucrats who conduct the foreign policy of European nations. (1) Resources Notes and References Information about European Diplomats in the Encarta Online Encyclopedia Guide to European Diplomats More Topics […]

Communist Influence In Western European Parties

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe Other Western European Parties The strongest Western European parties, other than the Italian and French, have been those of Greece, Finland, Portugal, and Spain. The Greek and Portuguese parties mirrored the intransigence […]

Communism In Eastern Europe Origins

Apart from China, the main world region in which communist movements made huge inroads after World War II was Eastern Europe. The states of the area were relatively young; all had been carved out of the former Austro-Hungarian, German, Russian, and Ottoman empires by post-World War I treaties. […]

Communist Influence In Former Soviet Union And Eastern Europe

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe The mighty Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) died with its brainchild, the Soviet Union, in 1991. The CPSU's central headquarters was disbanded in August 1991, and many of the 15 Soviet […]

Communist Influence In Western Europe

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe The communist parties of Western Europe were all established between 1918 and 1923, following the Russian Revolutions. They were responsive to Soviet directives, yet at the same time drew on European socialist roots going […]

List of European Courts

Benelux Court of Justice Court of First Instance of the European Communities Court of Justice of the European Communities European Court of Human Rights European Free Trade Agreement Court Benelux Court of Justice Court Of Justice of the Benelux Economic Union The […]

Western European Tribunals

History of Western European Tribunals Medieval courts were an outgrowth of the tribal courts of the Germanic peoples, among whom the highest judicial authority was that of the popular assemblies that met regularly throughout the year. The tribal judges supervised the proceedings and […]

Lesbos

Lesbos in Europe Lesbos (Mytilene, Turk. Midullu), an island in the Aegean sea, off the coast of Mysia, N. of the entrance of the Gulf of Smyrna, forming the main part of a sanjak in the archipelago vilayet of European Turkey. History Although the position of Lesbos near the […]

Principles of European Contract Law

Principles of European Contract Law (Commision on European Contract Law) 2 25 May 2002 PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN CONTRACT LAW TEXT OF ARTICLES IN PART 3, IN ENGLISH CHAPTER 10 Plurality of parties Section 1: Plurality of debtors ARTICLE 10:101: SOLIDARY, SEPARATE AND […]

European Caselaw Databases

JURE, a database created by the European Commission, contains case law on jurisdiction in civil and commercial matters and on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in a State other than the one where the judgment was passed. This includes case law on relevant international […]