Nordic Mediation

Mediation in the Nordic Countries of Europe Background and History of Mediation in the Nordic Countries The Nordic—or Scandinavian countries1—Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have close geographic, historical, social, economic, cultural, linguistic and legal ties. The economies are organised in a similar manner in what is sometimes called the ‘Nordic model’. In this model, … Read more

Western European Union

Introduction to Western European Union Western European Union (WEU), association of European countries focused on defense and security issues. The WEU grew out of the Brussels Treaty, a cooperative agreement made in 1948 between the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, and […]

The Riksdag

The Riksdag of Sweden Basic principles of the Parliament in Sweden In the Swedish Constitution: The Instrument of Government (SFS nr: 1974:152) Chapter 3 of the Instrument of Government has the headline ” The Riksdag”. Here is the content of Chapter 3: Article 1 provides the following: The Riksdag is appointed by means of free, … Read more

Editors

Editors in Europe Editors and Freedom of Expression in Sweden In the Swedish Constitution: The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (SFS nr: 1991:1469) In addition to the Instrument of Government, Sweden has three fundamental laws (Sveriges Grundlagar): the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act, and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of … Read more

Press Freedom

Press Freedom in Europe Press Freedom in Sweden In the Swedish Constitution: The Freedom of the Press Act (SFS nr: 1949:105) In addition to the Instrument of Government, Sweden has three fundamental laws (Sveriges Grundlagar): the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression. The Riksdag … Read more

Sweden

Sweden in Europe Outline of the Country´s Legal System According to the work "Guide to Foreign and International Citations", by the Journal of International Law and Politics (New York University School of Law): The Swedish Constitution, adopted in 1975, establishes the form of […]

Anonymity

Anonymity in Europe Right to Anonymity and Press Freedom in Sweden In the Swedish Constitution: The Freedom of the Press Act (SFS nr: 1949:105) In addition to the Instrument of Government, Sweden has three fundamental laws (Sveriges Grundlagar): the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act, which covers the right to Anonymity, and … Read more

Freedom of the Press Court Cases

Freedom of the Press Court Cases in Europe Freedom of the Press Court Cases in Sweden In the Swedish Constitution: The Freedom of the Press Act (SFS nr: 1949:105) In addition to the Instrument of Government, Sweden has three fundamental laws (Sveriges Grundlagar): the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act, which includes … Read more

Western Europe Legal Systems

Western Legal Systems in Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal … Read more

Periodicals

Periodicals in Europe Publiction of Periodicals and Press Freedom in Sweden Note: see also the information about the production of Printed Materials in Sweden here. In the Swedish Constitution: The Freedom of the Press Act (SFS nr: 1949:105) In addition to the Instrument of Government, Sweden has three fundamental laws (Sveriges Grundlagar): the Act of … Read more

Lawyers in Sweden

Lawyers in Sweden Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer There is only one type of “official” lawyer in Sweden, the Advokat. Advokater have no solid monopoly, except for their title. They can be appointed as public defenders, but there are some exceptions allowing others this right too. There are approximately 2,850 Advokater, roughly one thousand of … Read more

Prescription Charges in Sweden

Prescription Charges in Sweden Background Health care in Sweden is universal and is provided by Sweden’s 20 county councils and one local authority. It is primarily financed through local taxation (80%), as well as grants and payments for certain services from central government (19%). Patient fees amount to 4% of county council revenue [2]. There … Read more

Dissemination

Dissemination in Europe Dissemination of Printed Matter and Press Freedom in Sweden Note: see also the information about the production of Printed Materials in Sweden here. In the Swedish Constitution: The Freedom of the Press Act (SFS nr: 1949:105) In addition to the Instrument of Government, Sweden has three fundamental laws (Sveriges Grundlagar): the Act … Read more

Swedish Government

The Government of Sweden Basic principles of the Government in Sweden In the Swedish Constitution: The Instrument of Government (SFS nr: 1974:152) Chapter 6 of the Instrument of Government has the headline “Basic principles of the form of government”. Here is the content of Chapter 6: Article 1 provides the following: The Government consists of … Read more

Swedish Constitution

Swedish Constitution Some details: The Instrument of Government contains the basic principles of Swedens form of government: how the Government is to work, the fundamental freedoms and rights of the Swedish people and how elections to the Riksdag (Swedish parliament) are to be implemented. The adoption in 1974 of the Instrument of Government currently in … Read more

Gotland

Gotland in Europe Description Gotland, an island in the Baltic Sea belonging to Sweden, lying between 57° and 58° N., and having a length from S.S.W. to N.N.E. of 75 m., a breadth not exceeding 30 m., and an area of 1142 sq. m. The nearest point on the mainland is 50 m. from the westernmost […]

Western Europe

Western Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal System Liechtenstein Legal … Read more

Notaries in Sweden

Notaries in Sweden Professional activities Reserved activities Professional titles Advertising/Publicity Client confidentiality/Professional privileges Clients’ money Fees Accounting Professional insurance Specialist practitioners Other Issues Mobility Legal Education Legal Training Governing Bodies Relevant Legislation Other Legal Professionals Lawyers There is only one type of “official” lawyer in Sweden, the Advokat. Advokater have no solid monopoly, except for … Read more

Louis Gerhard de Geer

Louis Gerhard de Geer in Europe Baron Louis Gerhard de Geer (1818-1896), Swedish statesman and writer, was born on the 18th of July 1818 at Finspång castle. He adopted the legal profession, and in 1855 became president of the Göta Hofret, or lord justice of one of the Swedish supreme […]

Consular Legislation

Consular Legislation in Europe European Union Materials For information about European Union consular legislation, click here. In Austria Read in this legal Encyclopedia for information about consular law in Austria. In Germany Read in this legal Encyclopedia for information about […]

European Convention On State Immunity

Definition of European Convention On State Immunity In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of European Convention On State Immunity : An international convention of 1972 setting out when and how member states of the European Community (now the European Union) […]

European Commission of Human Rights

European Convention on Human Rights: the European Commission of Human Rights Introduction to European Commission of Human Rights The commission can only deal with a claim if all domestic remedies have been exhausted, unless a state waives the benefit of this rule. Local remedies do not have to […]

European Diplomats

Introduction to European Diplomats European Diplomats, ambassadors, ministers, and bureaucrats who conduct the foreign policy of European nations. (1) Resources Notes and References Information about European Diplomats in the Encarta Online Encyclopedia Guide to European Diplomats More Topics […]

Communist Influence In Western European Parties

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe Other Western European Parties The strongest Western European parties, other than the Italian and French, have been those of Greece, Finland, Portugal, and Spain. The Greek and Portuguese parties mirrored the intransigence […]

Communist Influence In Western Europe

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe The communist parties of Western Europe were all established between 1918 and 1923, following the Russian Revolutions. They were responsive to Soviet directives, yet at the same time drew on European socialist roots going […]

List of European Courts

Benelux Court of Justice Court of First Instance of the European Communities Court of Justice of the European Communities European Court of Human Rights European Free Trade Agreement Court Benelux Court of Justice Court Of Justice of the Benelux Economic Union The […]

Western European Tribunals

History of Western European Tribunals Medieval courts were an outgrowth of the tribal courts of the Germanic peoples, among whom the highest judicial authority was that of the popular assemblies that met regularly throughout the year. The tribal judges supervised the proceedings and […]

Principles of European Contract Law

Principles of European Contract Law (Commision on European Contract Law) 2 25 May 2002 PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN CONTRACT LAW TEXT OF ARTICLES IN PART 3, IN ENGLISH CHAPTER 10 Plurality of parties Section 1: Plurality of debtors ARTICLE 10:101: SOLIDARY, SEPARATE AND […]

European Caselaw Databases

JURE, a database created by the European Commission, contains case law on jurisdiction in civil and commercial matters and on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in a State other than the one where the judgment was passed. This includes case law on relevant international […]

Hammarskjold, Hjalmar

Hammarskjold, Hjalmar in Europe HAMMARSKJÖLD, HJALMAR (1862-1953), Swedish statesman, was born in 1862, and educated at Upsala University, where he became professor of civil law. He gradually established his reputation as a jurist, and took a prominent part in national politics. In 1901 he […]