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Intellectual Property Rights

Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) Intellectual Property Rights and Trade Barrier Regulation From the document “Trade Barriers Regulation [TBR]“, published by the European Commission: Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time. Such exclusive right are generally subject to a number of limitations and exceptions, aimed at fine-tuning the balance that has to be found between the legitimate interests of right holders and of users. The WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) narrowed the gaps in the way these rights are protected around the world, and brought them under common international rules. Copyright The rights of authors of literary and artistic works (such as books and other writings, musical compositions, paintings, sculpture, computer programs and films) are protected by copyright, for a minimum period of 50 years after the death of the author. Also protected through copyright and related rights are the rights of performers (e.g. actors, singers and musicians), producers of phonograms (sound recordings) and broadcasting organisations. Industrial property Industrial property can usefully be divided into two main areas: Distinctive signs. These are in particular trademarks (which […]


Dumping Contents NORMAL VALUE Introduction The notion of ‘exporting country’ Trading companies Normal value computed on a monthly, quarterly or six-monthly basis Calculation of the normal value in cases where two or more related exporting producers manufacture products originating in the same investigated country Type-by-type analysis: the notion of ‘product control number’ (“PCN”) Normal value determinations for products originating in market economy countries or manufactured by exporting producers located in non-market economy countries who were granted market economy treatment Domestic market prices Grounds for disregarding domestic market prices No or insufficient sales of the like product No sales in the ordinary course of trade Sales not permitting a proper comparison First alternative normal value: normal value established on the basis of prices of other sellers or producers Second alternative normal value: constructed value Constructed value: rules concerning the determination of costs Use of the party’s records and costs not reasonably reflected in the records of the party concerned Cost allocations Start-up operations The elements of constructed value Cost of production Selling, general and administrative expenses (SGA) Reasonable profits Third alternative normal value: export price to a third country Export Price Notion of export price Volume of transactions investigated Notion of […]

Anti-Dumping Measures

Anti-Dumping Measures Contents Introduction and Framework Anti-Dumping Measures Legislative history Scope of the Regulation The European Economic Area ‘Union acquis’ Anti-circumvention Customs Union with Turkey The Association Agreement The Decision implementing the final phase of the Customs Union Dumping See Dumping. Injury See Union industry Union interest See Union interest Relief See Relief Anti-Dumping Duties See Anti-Dumping Duties Dumping Procedure See Dumping Procedure Circunvention See Circunvention Legislation and Agreements Council Regulation (EC) No 1225/2009 Annex 2. Council Regulation (EC) No 597/2009 Annex 3. Council Regulation (EC) No 260/2009 Annex 4. Council Regulation (EC) No 625/2009 Annex 5. Council Regulation (EC) No 3286/94 Annex 6. Excerpts from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 Annex 7. Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Annex 8. Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures Annex 9. Agreement on Safeguards Annex 10. Agreement on Rules of Origin .


Archives The common organisation of the market in bananas will allow the Community market to receive satisfactory supplies of quality bananas at fair prices for producers and consumers and ensure a balance between the various sources of supply. This market organisation had already been amended to take account of the switch to a tariff-only system from 1 January 2006,. At the end of 2006, the Council adopted a thorough-going reform of the CMO aimed primarily at allowing measures to reflect differing regional circumstances. ACT Council Regulation (EEC) No 404/93 of 13 February 1993 on the common organisation of the market in bananas [See amending acts]. SUMMARY Scope The products concerned are fresh and dried bananas (excluding plantains), frozen, provisionally preserved and prepared bananas, banana juice and banana flour, meal and powder. The marketing year runs from 1 January to 31 December. Common quality and marketing standards The Commission lays down quality standards for bananas that are to be sold fresh to the consumer. The adoption of standards for products processed from bananas is optional. The Member States, through control bodies, must ensure that these rules are observed. Producer organisations and the consultation mechanism The existing provisions on producer organisations were […]

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Tobias Michael Carel Asser

Asser Tobias Michael Carel

Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838-1913), Dutch statesman, jurist, and Nobel laureate, born in Amsterdam. He became professor of law at the Athenaeum in Amsterdam in 1862 and at the University of Amsterdam in 1876. In 1893 he became a member of the council of state. …

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Soviet Collapse

Communism in the Soviet Union Gorbachev's Reforms and the Soviet Collapse

Brezhnev died in November 1982. Two elderly members of the Politburo, Yuri Andropov, a former head of the KGB, and Konstantin Chernenko, a crony of Brezhnev's, filled his shoes for the next several year…

Jean Jacques Regis De Cambaceres

Cambaceres Jean Jacques Regis de

Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (1753-1824), French statesman and jurist, born in Montpellier. Educated as a lawyer, Cambacérès became president of the criminal court in Montpellier in 1791. During the French Revolution, he…

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Friedrich Engels

Communism The Ideas of Marx and Engels

It was the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that laid the conceptual foundation for the communist revolutions and regimes of the 20th century. Marx and Engels were German-born intellectuals who worked in various cities in Europe as teachers, jour…


Conservatism Conservatism in Europe

Many conservative movements and groups have flourished in continental Europe, but no conservative parties similar to the British model in organization, doctrine, mass membership, and attachment to parliamentary democracy have ever developed. European conse…

Communist Rule

Communism in Eastern Europe Communist Rule

The transition to communism in Eastern Europe took several years to complete. At first, local communist parties governed as part of multiparty coalition governments. But in 1947 and 1948 Soviet tolerance of political diversity waned, and these Easte…