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Tobias Michael Carel Asser

Asser Tobias Michael Carel

Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838-1913), Dutch statesman, jurist, and Nobel laureate, born in Amsterdam. He became professor of law at the Athenaeum in Amsterdam in 1862 and at the University of Amsterdam in 1876. In 1893 he became a member of the council of state. …

Soviet Collapse

Communism in the Soviet Union Gorbachev's Reforms and the Soviet Collapse

Brezhnev died in November 1982. Two elderly members of the Politburo, Yuri Andropov, a former head of the KGB, and Konstantin Chernenko, a crony of Brezhnev's, filled his shoes for the next several year…

Jean Jacques Regis De Cambaceres

Cambaceres Jean Jacques Regis de

Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (1753-1824), French statesman and jurist, born in Montpellier. Educated as a lawyer, Cambacérès became president of the criminal court in Montpellier in 1791. During the French Revolution, he…

Friedrich Engels

Communism The Ideas of Marx and Engels

It was the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that laid the conceptual foundation for the communist revolutions and regimes of the 20th century. Marx and Engels were German-born intellectuals who worked in various cities in Europe as teachers, jour…

Conservatism

Conservatism Conservatism in Europe

Many conservative movements and groups have flourished in continental Europe, but no conservative parties similar to the British model in organization, doctrine, mass membership, and attachment to parliamentary democracy have ever developed. European conse…

Communist Rule

Communism in Eastern Europe Communist Rule

The transition to communism in Eastern Europe took several years to complete. At first, local communist parties governed as part of multiparty coalition governments. But in 1947 and 1948 Soviet tolerance of political diversity waned, and these Easte…

Communist Influence In Western European Parties

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe Other Western European Parties

The strongest Western European parties, other than the Italian and French, have been those of Greece, Finland, Portugal, and Spain. The Greek and Portuguese parties mirrored the intransigen…

Communist Influence In Western Europe

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe

The communist parties of Western Europe were all established between 1918 and 1923, following the Russian Revolutions. They were responsive to Soviet directives, yet at the same time drew on European socialist roots goin…

Communist Influence In Italy

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe Italy

The Italian Communist Party was one of the most potent communist parties in Western Europe after World War II. It was established in 1921 by a radical group of the Italian Socialist Party. The party was outlawed by…

Communist Influence In France

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe France

The French Communist Party, founded in 1920 by members of the French Socialist Party, was another influential communist party in Western Europe. It had considerable strength in the electorate, the unions, and the …