Counter-Terrorism in Belgium

Counter-Terrorism in Belgium NATIONAL POLICY Belgium attaches fundamental importance to fighting terrorism and strives to ensure that it has all the appropriate means of preventing acts of terrorism and effectively bringing the perpetrators to trial. This combat is pursued with due regard for human rights and the rule of law. Belgium has established a coherent, … Read more

Later Medieval Canon Law

Later Medieval Canon Law The Fourth Lateran Council The Fourth Lateran Council, called by Innocent III, was the most important of the Western Medieval general councils. It addressed a wide range of issues in a series of canons. One of the important canons for law was CANON 42, which reads: “SUMMARY No cleric may so … Read more

Rebirth of Canon Law Studies

Rebirth of Canon Law Studies Rebirth of Canon Law Studies: 11th Century On Domus Gratiani: Gratian Studies Gratian was a 12th-century Benedictine monk and canon lawyer from Bologna. Little is known about him beyond the fact that he compiled and wrote this collection of legal texts, which became the code of canon law used in … Read more

International Child Abduction

International Child Abduction in Europe European Union Regulation and the Hague Convention on International Child Abduction In the European Union, a community composed of multicultural and multiethnic societies, where citizens move freely across borders, the abduction of children is a growing problem. Frequently, abductions occur among E.U. citizens, residents of a particular Member State, who … Read more

German Criminal Code

German Criminal Code The Criminal Code (StGB, with the necessary delimitation also dStGB) regulates in Germany the core matter of substantive criminal law. While this determines the conditions and legal consequences of criminal acts, the procedure for enforcing its norms, criminal proceedings, is governed by its own code of practice – the Code of Criminal … Read more

German Exchange Law

German Exchange Law German Legislation and European Harmonization With the foundation of the German Empire (Deutsches Reich) came the fulfillment of the constitutional requirements, with the abandonment of liberal views the political requirements, and with the bad outcomes of the former regulatory approaches the legislative requirements to create an Exchange Act: the Börsengesetz (1896). Creation … Read more

Waste Legislation

Definition of Year, Day And Waste The right which the Crown had to hold the lands of felons for a year and a day, and commit waste (q.v.) thereon. See Forfeiture Browse You might be interested in these references tools: ResourceDescription Year, Day And Waste in the Dictionaries, Year, Day […]


Standards The use of Standards in complying with European product safety Directives is not compulsory, but they can be useful when designing products. However, some European standards have a special legal status and define minimum acceptable levels for health and safety by supporting the essential requirements of these Directives, and if followed fully may give … Read more

Services Directive

European Union Services Directive The European Union (EU) Services Directive aims to break down barriers to cross border trade in services between countries in the EU. The Services Directive aims to make life easier for businesses, particularly small and medium sized enterprises, to offer their services to customers in other EU countries, whether establishing elsewhere … Read more

Marine Strategy Framework Directive

EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive The European Union (EU) is the world’s largest maritime territory and marine resources make a significant contribution to each Member State’s economic prosperity and social well-being. The European marine environment must therefore be protected to ensure that it is healthy, productive and safeguarded for the use of future generations. Many … Read more


Toys in Europe Manufacture, imports and distribution of Toys: European Toy Safety Directive 2009/48/EC European Union manufacturers, authorised representatives of a manufacturer, importers and distributors of toys intended for children must comply with the provisions of the national law (in the UK, the Toys (Safety) Regulations 2011 for toys placed on the market after 19 … Read more

Environmental Quality

Environmental Quality International and European standards of air quality To meet the international and European obligations on standards of air quality, EU Member States are: monitoring and assessing air quality in their territories, reporting on emissions and concentrations of air pollution annually to the European Commission (EC) and Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. … Read more

Explosive Atmospheres

Explosive Atmospheres The ATEX Directive The ATEX Directive is a European single market directive that applies to electrical and mechanical equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. The directive replaces 2 previous directives on electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (76/117/EC and 82/130/EC), which came into force on 1 … Read more


Emissions National Emissions Ceilings Directive (NECD) Air pollution travels over long distances, affects human health, degrades buildings and other man-made structures and adversely affects the natural environment through acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. The European Community agreed to set emission ceilings through the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD) to protect its citizens, its man-made structures … Read more

Hazardous Substance

Hazardous Substances International Hazardous Substances Regulations Many countries in the world have put in place regulations which aim at controlling the manufacturing and the use of chemical substances with the objective to limit adverse effects on human health and environment. For instance: the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), the China REACH, the “Toxic Substances Control … Read more

Supply Law

Products Supply Law European Community law on the supply of new products In order to facilitate a single European market for goods some 20 years ago the European Union began what is described as the ‘New Approach’. A number of Directives were adopted with the aim of setting objectives for the harmonisation of technical rules, … Read more


Ecodesign Policy At the global level, the Marrakech Process aims “to support the elaboration of a 10-Year Framework of Programs (10 YFP) on sustainable consumption and production” coordinating global efforts on greener production among other efforts (United Nations, 2008). At European Union level, multiple Directives with significant impacts on product design have been implemented, coordinated … Read more


Species The EU Regulation (1143/2014) on invasive alien (non-native) species The EU Regulation on invasive alien (non-native) species entered into force on 1 January 2015. The Regulation imposes restrictions on a list of species known as “species of Union concern”. These are species whose potential adverse impacts across the European Union are such that concerted … Read more

Waste Incineration

Waste Incineration Implementation of European Council Directive 2000/76/EC on the Incineration of Waste The Regulatory Framework The Waste Incineration Directive (WID) introduces stringent operating conditions and sets minimum technical requirements for waste incineration and co-incineration 1. It consolidates new and existing incineration controls into a single piece of European legislation. The requirements of the Directive … Read more

Nature Conservation

Nature Conservation in Europe European Nature Conservation Europe is a relatively small continent, but it is home to a wide range of plants and animals, geology and landscapes, many of which are found nowhere else on the planet. The 27 Member States of the European Union (EU) cover almost half the total area of the … Read more

Notaries in France

Notaries in France The notaire is a public officer appointed by the Garde des Sceaux, Minister of Justice. He has a monopoly on documents that must be authenticated by deed, i. e. wills, marriage, contracts, document dealing with transfer of real property, and conveyancing. Furtherthemore he is allowed to give advise in these fields, normally … Read more

Notaries in Austria

Notaries in Austria Legal Framework The profession of Notaries in Austria Austrian notaries, like many of their European counter parts on the continent, belong to the “latin-type” of the notarial profession, often referred to as the “civil law notary”. This means that they are independent professionals who advise private parties and draft contracts on their … Read more

Notaries in Germany

Notaries in Germany Professional activities Reserved activities he recording of a statement made before the official in the form required by the law; authentication; all recordings of declarations of intent or contracts that are to become official documents. Professional titles These are Notar (men) and Notarin (women) (§ 2 BNotO). Advertising/Publicity The prohibition of advertising … Read more

Exchange of Lawyers

Exchange of Lawyers in Europe Advantages and Recomendations Study of national law Although Europe moves towards a tighter single market for goods and services, law still differs from country to country, from region to region, each country keepings its own autonomy. Europe still comprises several legal systems. In this new environment, the legal practitioner has … Read more

Transnational Mobility of Lawyers

Transnational Mobility of Lawyers The transnational mobility of lawyers is important for several reasons. For those involved in it, the experience represents first-hand contact with a different legal system in which approaches to providing legal services, as well as its methodologies and organisation, may differ. It is a unique opportunity for foreign lawyers to reflect … Read more

Medical Device

Medical Device Legal requirements for placing medical devices on the market You need to demonstrate that your medical device meets the requirements in the Medical Devices Directive (MDD) by carrying out a conformity assessment. The assessment route depends on the classification of the device. You can place a CE mark on your product to show … Read more

Lawyers in Sweden

Lawyers in Sweden Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer There is only one type of “official” lawyer in Sweden, the Advokat. Advokater have no solid monopoly, except for their title. They can be appointed as public defenders, but there are some exceptions allowing others this right too. There are approximately 2,850 Advokater, roughly one thousand of … Read more

Lawyers in Luxembourg

Lawyers in Luxembourg Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer Avocat (advocate) The full title of an avocat used to be more correctly called an AVOCAT-AVOUE. A further distinction is made between the fully qualified AVOCAT, who is styled AVOCAT INSCRIT (on List I) as compared with the trainee lawyer (AVOCAT-STAGIAIRE ) (found on List II). This … Read more

Lawyers in Belgium

Lawyers in Belgium Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer They are: Avocat (advocate/lawyer): The avocat practices in all areas of legal work. Only avocats have the right to plead in court, with a small number of statutory exceptions. They give legal advice and represent clients before tribunals. A defendant may represent himself, or with the permission … Read more

Lawyers in Germany

Lawyers in Germany Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer: RECHTSANWÄLTE An independant agent and consultant on all legal matters who may be approached directly by members of the public. Rechtsanwälte often work in the smaller cities, and are not concentrated exclusively in a few large areas, as is the case with the English Bar. Although a … Read more

Jurisdiction in Private Antitrust Litigation

Jurisdiction in Private Antitrust Litigation Relevant Jurisdiction in Private Antitrust Litigation General Introduction The Brussels I Regulation was amended and entered into force in January 2015. In June 2013 the Commission also advanced a proposal for a Directive on certain rules governing the actions for damages under national law for infringements of competition law. Many … Read more


Advertising in Europe TV advertising of E-Cigarettes On 9th October 2014 the Committee of Advertising Practice, the body responsible for producing the codes of practice to which broadcast and non-broadcast advertising in the UK must adhere, published new rules permitting the display for the first time of electronic cigarettes (ECs) in broadcast advertising media. This … Read more

General Data Protection Regulation

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) General Introduction The General Data Protection Regulation was approved by the European Union Parliament on 14 April 2016. GDPR will enter in force 20 days after its publication in the EU Official Journal and will be directly application in all members states two years after this date. Enforcement date is, … Read more

Protection of Animals

Protection of Animals Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing Background Animal welfare at slaughter was protected in Member States by their national welfare of animals legislation. These national laws transposed Council Directive 93/119/EC on the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing. On 1st January … Read more

Prescription Charges

Prescription Charges in Europe Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies Background In the EU, pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement remains the competence of the Member States. While all EU Member States have to comply with the rules of the Transparency Directive which aims at guaranteeing pricing and reimbursement decisions to be taken in a transparent way within … Read more

Lawyers in Spain

Lawyers in Spain Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer There are one or two general features about the Spanish legal training and provision of legal services that need pointing out. Firstly there are more that the usual one or two different types of professional providing legal services: the advocate (abogado), the procurator (procurador), the notary (notariado) … Read more

Bailiffs in Germany

Bailiffs in Germany Professional Activities and Legal Framework The basic functions of Gerichtsvollzieher Gerichtsvollzieher are civil servants working as servers and enforcers. In the area of execution (Zwangsvollstreckung) they are responsible for the seizure of property as well as the seizure of ships registered in the register of shipping, for the provisional seizure of claims, … Read more

Lawyers in Portugal

Lawyers in Portugal Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer The three main legal professions in Portugal comprise the following: Advogados (see below) Solicitadores (see below) Notarios (see Notaries below) Oficiais de Justiça (see bailiffs below) It is not possible to be both solicitador and advogado at the same time. Advocates (advogados) They have very wide, and … Read more

Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights in Europe Content about Fundamental Rights from the publication "The ABC of European Union law" (2010, European Union) by Klaus-Dieter Borchardt. The fundamental values and concepts at the heart of the EU also include the fundamental rights of individual citizens […]


Machinery in Europe European Community law on the supply of new products In order to facilitate a single European market for goods some 20 years ago the European Union began what is described as the ‘New Approach’. A number of Directives were adopted with the aim of setting objectives for the harmonisation of technical rules, … Read more

Animal Health

Animal Health in Europe Animal health is a major concern not just for animal keepers, but for the general public across the UK and Europe. It has important links to public health, animal welfare and food safety. When things go wrong, they can have devastating effects: for example, both the BSE crisis of the late … Read more

Notaries in Greece

Notaries in Greece Professional activities The SIMVOLAIOGOROS is the public notary who authenticates and preserves important personal and commercial documents. Although he offers a public service , he is considered an independent practitioner who assist in the administration of justice. A person whishing to be appointed as a Simvolaiogoros must possess an University degree and … Read more