Nordic Mediation

Mediation in the Nordic Countries of Europe Background and History of Mediation in the Nordic Countries The Nordic—or Scandinavian countries1—Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have close geographic, historical, social, economic, cultural, linguistic and legal ties. The economies are organised in a similar manner in what is sometimes called the ‘Nordic model’. In this model, … Read more

Western European Union

Introduction to Western European Union Western European Union (WEU), association of European countries focused on defense and security issues. The WEU grew out of the Brussels Treaty, a cooperative agreement made in 1948 between the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, and […]

Finland

Finland in Europe According to the work "Guide to Foreign and International Citations", by the Journal of International Law and Politics (New York University School of Law): "Finland’s Constitution was adopted March 1, 2000. Prior to that date, the country was governed by four […]

Western Europe Legal Systems

Western Legal Systems in Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal … Read more

Finnish Criminal Justice System

The Finnish Criminal Justice System This entry gives a general account of the overall criminal system and outline the political and legal structure and the history of the Finnish criminal justice system to help account for the unique aspects that may help to bind the many parts of this criminal justice system together, and to … Read more

Lawyers in Finland

Lawyers in Finland Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer The position is very similar to that of Sweden. The legal profession is unified – no distinction is drawn between lawyers undertaking different areas of work. All practising members of the “official” legal profession are known as advocates (in Swedish advokater), in Finnish this translates as asianajaja … Read more

Prescription Charges in Finland

Prescription Charges in Finland Background Finland’s health care system covers the entire population and is funded through taxation. Responsibility for providing health care is decentralised. Patient charges are a feature of the system with the maximum charges being set by statute [1]. As part of the system, any prescription medication approved by the pharmaceutical pricing … Read more

Notaries in Finland

Notaries in Finland Other Legal Professionals Lawyers The legal profession is unified – no distinction is drawn between lawyers undertaking different areas of work. All practising members of the “official” legal profession are known as advocates (in Swedish advokater), in Finnish this translates as asianajaja (singular) and asianajajat (plural) and they are subject to statutory … Read more

Western Europe

Western Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal System Liechtenstein Legal … Read more

Consular Legislation

Consular Legislation in Europe European Union Materials For information about European Union consular legislation, click here. In Austria Read in this legal Encyclopedia for information about consular law in Austria. In Germany Read in this legal Encyclopedia for information about […]

European Convention On State Immunity

Definition of European Convention On State Immunity In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of European Convention On State Immunity : An international convention of 1972 setting out when and how member states of the European Community (now the European Union) […]

European Commission of Human Rights

European Convention on Human Rights: the European Commission of Human Rights Introduction to European Commission of Human Rights The commission can only deal with a claim if all domestic remedies have been exhausted, unless a state waives the benefit of this rule. Local remedies do not have to […]

European Diplomats

Introduction to European Diplomats European Diplomats, ambassadors, ministers, and bureaucrats who conduct the foreign policy of European nations. (1) Resources Notes and References Information about European Diplomats in the Encarta Online Encyclopedia Guide to European Diplomats More Topics […]

Communist Influence In Western European Parties

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe Other Western European Parties The strongest Western European parties, other than the Italian and French, have been those of Greece, Finland, Portugal, and Spain. The Greek and Portuguese parties mirrored the intransigence […]

Communist Influence In Western Europe

Communism: Communist Influence in Noncommunist Countries Western Europe The communist parties of Western Europe were all established between 1918 and 1923, following the Russian Revolutions. They were responsive to Soviet directives, yet at the same time drew on European socialist roots going […]

List of European Courts

Benelux Court of Justice Court of First Instance of the European Communities Court of Justice of the European Communities European Court of Human Rights European Free Trade Agreement Court Benelux Court of Justice Court Of Justice of the Benelux Economic Union The […]

Western European Tribunals

History of Western European Tribunals Medieval courts were an outgrowth of the tribal courts of the Germanic peoples, among whom the highest judicial authority was that of the popular assemblies that met regularly throughout the year. The tribal judges supervised the proceedings and […]

Principles of European Contract Law

Principles of European Contract Law (Commision on European Contract Law) 2 25 May 2002 PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN CONTRACT LAW TEXT OF ARTICLES IN PART 3, IN ENGLISH CHAPTER 10 Plurality of parties Section 1: Plurality of debtors ARTICLE 10:101: SOLIDARY, SEPARATE AND […]

European Caselaw Databases

JURE, a database created by the European Commission, contains case law on jurisdiction in civil and commercial matters and on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in a State other than the one where the judgment was passed. This includes case law on relevant international […]

Constitutional Text: Finland 1919, Amendments 1930,1934,1937,1944, 1947 and 1948

1930 AMENDMENT TO FINLAND’S CONSTITUTION OF 1919 NOVEMBER 18, 1930 Number 337 Act on Amending 7 § of the Procedures of Parliament Given in Helsinki the 18th day of November 1930 According to a decision of Parliament, which has been made in the manner prescribed in 67§ of the Procedures of […]