Women during the French Revolution

Women during the French Revolution Women’s clubs during the French Revolution Discussion of Women’s Political Clubs and Their Suppression, 29–30 October 1793 On 29 October 1793, a group of women appeared in the National Convention to complain that female militants had tried to force them to wear the red cap of liberty as a sign of their adherence to the … Read more


Powerless In Eastern Europe Our system is most frequently characterized as a dictatorship or, more precisely, as the dictatorship of a political bureaucracy over a society which has undergone economic and social leveling. I am afraid that the term “dictatorship,” regardless of how intelligible it may otherwise be, tends to obscure rather than clarify the … Read more

Charles De Gaulle

Charles De Gaulle in Europe Charles De Gaulle History General, and President of France between 1958-1969. Made his name as leader of the Free French during the Second World War. Gave independence to all France's African colonies, and lost the war in Algeria. Blocked the United Kingdom's first […]

Norman Law

Norman Law in the History of Europe Norman legal history Obscurity of Norman legal history The oldest financial records, the oldest judicial records3 that it has transmitted to us, are of much later date than the parallel English documents. Its oldest law-books, two small treatises now fused together and published under the title Le très … Read more

Georges Pompidou

Georges Pompidou in Europe Georges Pompidou History French statesman, premier and president. Helped de Gaulle draft the constitution for the Fifth Republic, negotiated a settlement in the Algerian War, and played a key role in settling the political crisis of 1968. Elected President following […]


The Franks in Europe In the history of Europe, the most important migratory tribe or set of tribes were the Franks. From the Frankish kingdoms in Gaul and then Germany would arise the political and social institutions of the Middle Ages. The Franks were originally a set of distinct, small […]

Jacob Van Lennep

Jacob Van Lennep in Europe Life and Work Jacob Van Lennep (1802-1868), Dutch poet and novelist, was born on the 24th of March 1802 at Amsterdam, where his father, David Jacob van Lennep (1774-1853), a scholar and 419 poet, was professor of eloquence and the classical languages in the […]

Maurice Barrès

Maurice Barrès in Europe Maurice Barrès (1862-1923), French novelist and politician, was born at Charmes (Vosges) on the 22nd of September 1862; he was educated at the lycée of Nancy, and in 1883 went to Paris to continue his legal studies. He was already a contributor to the monthly […]

Draco’s Law Code

Draco’s Law Code in Europe This Athenian code was written in 621/620 BCE, and it is preserved because of the inclusion by Aristotle in his work The Athenian Constitution. Some examples: …political rights (in Athens) can only belong to those that carry weapons. These rights are […]


Demosthenes in Europe Life and Work Demosthenes, the great Attic orator and statesman, was born in 384 (or 383) B.C. His father, who bore the same name, was an Athenian citizen belonging to the deme of Paeania. His mother, Cleobule, was the daughter of Gylon, a citizen who had been active in […]


Jansenism in Europe Jansenism, the religious principles laid down by Cornelius Jansen in his Augustinus. This was simply a digest of the teaching of St Augustine, drawn up with a special eye to the needs of the 17th century. In Jansen’s opinion the church was suffering from three evils. The […]

Aurel Dessewffy

Aurel Dessewffy in Europe Life and Work Count Aurel Dessewffy (1808-1842), Hungarian journalist and politician, eldest son of Count József Dessewffy and Eleonora Sztaray, was born at Nagy-Mihály, county Zemplén, Hungary. Carefully educated at his father’s house, he was accustomed to the best […]

Étienne Constantin de Gerlache

Étienne Constantin de Gerlache in Europe Life and Work Étienne Constantin de Gerlache, Baron de Gerlache (26 December 1785 – 10 February 1871), Belgian politician and historian, was born at Biourge, Luxemburg, on the 24th of December 1785. He studied law in Paris and practised there for some […]

History of Denmark

History of Denmark in Europe Historical Legal Issues The oldest laws which are still preserved date from the beginning of the 13th century, and many different collections are in existence. The first royal edict written in Danish is dated 1386; and the Act of Union at Kalmar, written in 1397, […]

Mikhail Bakunin

Mikhail Bakunin in Europe Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876), Russian anarchist, was born of an aristocratic family at Torjok, in the government of Tver, in 1814. As an officer of the Imperial Guard, he saw service in Poland, but resigned his commission from a disgust of despotism aroused by […]

Karl Mathy

Karl Mathy in Europe Life and Work Karl Mathy (1807-1868), Badenese statesman, was born at Mannheim on the 17th of March 1807. He studied law and politics at Heidelberg, and entered the Baden government department of finance in 1829. His sympathy with the revolutionary ideas of 1830, […]

Maximin Isnard

Maximin Isnard in Europe Life and Work Maximin Isnard (1758-1825), French revolutionist, was a dealer in perfumery at Draguignan when he was elected deputy for the department of the Var to the Legislative Assembly, where he joined the Girondists. Attacking the court, and the “Austrian […]


Isaeus in Europe Life and Work Isaeus (c. 420 b.c.-c. 350 b.c.), Attic orator, the chronological limits of whose extant work fall between the years 390 and 353 b.c., is described in the Plutarchic life as a Chalcidian; by Suidas, whom Dionysius follows, as an Athenian. The accounts have been […]

Georg Friedrich Von Martens

Georg Friedrich Von Martens in Europe Life and Work Georg Friedrich Von Martens (1756-1821), German jurist and diplomatist, was born at Hamburg on the 22nd of February 1756. Educated at the universities of Göttingen, Regensburg and Vienna, he became professor of jurisprudence at Göttingen […]

Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire in Europe Historical Introduction The Idea of an Empire Different in 1500 from that of a National Monarchy The national monarchies of western Europe—England, France, Spain, and Portugal—were political novelties in the year 1500: the idea of uniting the people of similar […]

Thomas Basin

Thomas Basin in Europe Thomas Basin (1412-1491), bishop of Lisieux and historian, was born probably at Caudebec in Normandy, but owing to the devastation caused by the Hundred Years’ War, his childhood was mainly spent in moving from one place to another. In 1424 he went to the university […]

Jean Barbeyrac

Jean Barbeyrac in Europe Jean Barbeyrac (1674-1744), French jurist, the nephew of Charles Barbeyrac, a distinguished physician of Montpellier, was born at Beziers in Lower Languedoc on the 15th of March 1674. He removed with his family into Switzerland after the revocation of the edict of […]

Étienne Baluze

Étienne Baluze in Europe Étienne Baluze (1630-1718), French scholar, was born at Tulle on the 24th of November 1630. He was educated at his native town and took minor orders. As secretary to Pierre de Marca, archbishop of Toulouse, he won the appreciation of that learned prelate to such a […]

Louis Marie Cormenin de la Haye

Louis Marie Cormenin de la Haye in Europe Vicomte Louis Marie Cormenin de la Haye (1788-1868), French jurist and political pamphleteer, was born at Paris on the 6th of January 1788. His father and his grandfather both held the rank of lieutenant-general of the admiralty. At the age of […]

Ludwig Bamberger

Ludwig Bamberger in Europe Ludwig Bamberger (1823-1899), German economist and politician, was born of Jewish parents on the 22nd of July 1823 at Mainz. After studying at Giessen, Heidelberg and Göttingen, he entered on the practice of the law. When the revolution of 1848 broke out he took […]


Goths in Europe History Goths (Gotones, later Gothis), a Teutonic people who in the 1st century of the Christian era appear to have inhabited the middle part of the basin of the Vistula. They were probably the easternmost of the Teutonic peoples. Early history. According to their own […]

Jean Le Houx

Jean Le Houx in Europe Jean Le Houx, a Norman lawyer. At the beginning of the 17th century a collection of songs was published by Jean Le Houx, purporting to be the work of Olivier Basselin. There seems to be very little doubt that Le Houx was himself the author of the songs attributed to […]

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in Europe Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), German philosopher, mathematician and man of affairs, was born on the 1st of July 1646 at Leipzig, where his father was professor of moral philosophy. Though the name Leibniz, Leibnitz or Lubeniecz was originally […]

Joseph Von Hergenröther

Joseph Von Hergenröther in Europe Life and Work Joseph Von Hergenröther (1824-1890), German theologian, was born at Würzburg in Bavaria on the 15th of September 1824. He studied at Würzburg and at Rome. After spending a year as parish priest at Zellingen, near his native city, he went, in […]

John Hely-Hutchinson

John Hely-Hutchinson in Europe Life and Work John Hely-Hutchinson (1724-1794), Irish lawyer, statesman, and provost of Trinity College, Dublin, son of Francis Hely, a gentleman of County Cork, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and was called to the Irish bar in 1748. He took the […]

Henri Basnage

Henri Basnage in Europe Henri Basnage (1615-1695) was an eminent lawyer, sieur de Franquenay. His eldest son was Jacques Basage. Jacques Basnage Jacques Basnage (1653-1723), French Protestant divine, (…) was born at Rouen in Normandy in 1653. He studied classical languages at Saumur […]

Nicolas Desmarets

Nicolas Desmarets in Europe Life and Work Nicolas Desmarets, Sieur de Maillebois (1648-1721), French statesman, was born in Paris on the 10th of September 1648. His mother was the sister of J. B. Colbert, who took him into his offices as a clerk. He became counsellor to the parlement in 1672, […]

Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneutil

Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneutil in Europe Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneutil (1813-1892), French economist, was born at Seneuil (Dordogne) on the 22nd of December 1813. Seneuil was an additional name adopted from his native place. Devoting himself at first to the study of the law, he was […]

Georges Couthon

Georges Couthon in Europe Georges Couthon (1755-1794), French revolutionist, was born at Orcet, a village in the district of Clermont in Auvergne. He studied law, and was admitted advocate at Clermont in 1785. At this period he was noted for his integrity, gentle-heartedness and charitable […]