Western European Union

Introduction to Western European Union Western European Union (WEU), association of European countries focused on defense and security issues. The WEU grew out of the Brussels Treaty, a cooperative agreement made in 1948 between the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, and […]

Norman Law

Norman Law in the History of Europe Norman legal history Obscurity of Norman legal history The oldest financial records, the oldest judicial records3 that it has transmitted to us, are of much later date than the parallel English documents. Its oldest law-books, two small treatises now fused together and published under the title Le très … Read more

Western Europe Legal Systems

Western Legal Systems in Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal … Read more

Bailiffs in France

Bailiffs in France Professional Activities and Legal Framework Their basic functions are: to serve notice of something on somebody and to execute decisions rendered by courts and tribunals, to obtain the repayment of debts, to certify. The huissier de justice is an advisor: The Huissier de Justice solves conflicts between landlords and tenants, difficulties related … Read more

Notaries in France

Notaries in France The notaire is a public officer appointed by the Garde des Sceaux, Minister of Justice. He has a monopoly on documents that must be authenticated by deed, i. e. wills, marriage, contracts, document dealing with transfer of real property, and conveyancing. Furtherthemore he is allowed to give advise in these fields, normally … Read more


Elysee in Europe Elysee in relation with International Trade In the context of trade organizations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Elysee: The office of the French Presidency.

Paris Union

Paris Union in Europe Paris Union in relation with International Trade In the context of trade organizations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Paris Union: The organization of signatory states to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (Sec. I).

French Criminal Justice System

French Criminal Justice System This entry gives a general account of the overall criminal system and outline the political and legal structure and the history of the French criminal justice system to help account for the unique aspects that may help to bind the many parts of this criminal justice system together, and to show … Read more

Lawyers in France

Lawyers in France Legal Professionals Types of Lawyer They are: Avocats (advocates) (see below) Specialised Practitioners include Insolvency practitioners and Other Practitioners (see below). Huissiers (bailiffs): see below. Notaires (notaries): see below. Avocats The avocat has exclusive rights of audience in all courts of general jurisdiction: Tribunaux de Grande Instance Cours d’Assises Cours d’Appel Tribunaux … Read more

Prescription Charges in France

Prescription Charges in France Background The French have a system of statutory heath insurance which has almost universal coverage. In addition, 90% of the population belong to supplementary sickness or private insurance [2] schemes. Most of the French health care expenditure is financed through employee and employer contributions (75%). The rest comes from patient payments … Read more

Carolingian Canon Law

Carolingian Canon Law Collectio Dionysio-Hadriana (774) Some resources include: Cochlaeus (Johannes Wendelstinus), Dionysio-Hadriana. Mainz, 1525. Hosted by the University of Kentucky. Collectio Dacheriana (ca. 800) Some resources include: Jean-Luc D’Achery, ed. Spicilegium sive collectio veterum aliquot scriptorum qui in Galliae Bibliothecis delituerant. Paris, 1723. Hosted by Codices Electronici Ecclesiae Coloniensis, University of Cologne. False Capitularies … Read more

French Code

French Code in Europe Influence of the French Code de Procédure Civile (1806) in 19th Century Europe Introduction The number of European jurisdictions where Napoleon’s Code de procédure civile (1806) left its mark, either directly or indirectly, is vast. According to R.C. van Caenegem, […]

Maurice Barrès

Maurice Barrès in Europe Maurice Barrès (1862-1923), French novelist and politician, was born at Charmes (Vosges) on the 22nd of September 1862; he was educated at the lycée of Nancy, and in 1883 went to Paris to continue his legal studies. He was already a contributor to the monthly […]

Western Europe

Western Europe Western Europe Legal Systems Andorra Legal System Austria Legal System Belgium Legal System Denmark Legal System England and Wales Legal System Finland Legal System French Legal System German Legal System Greece Legal System Holy See Legal System Iceland Legal System Ireland Legal System Isle of Man Legal System Italian Legal System Liechtenstein Legal … Read more


Department in Europe History Department (French: département, from départir, to separate into parts), a division. The word is used of the branches of the administration in a state or municipality; in Great Britain it is applied to the subordinate divisions only of the great offices and boards […]

Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel

Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel in Europe Life and Work Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel (1856-1922), French statesman, son of Émile Deschanel (1819-1904), professor at the Collège de France and senator, was born at Brussels, where his father was living in exile (1851-1859), owing to his opposition to […]

Maximin Isnard

Maximin Isnard in Europe Life and Work Maximin Isnard (1758-1825), French revolutionist, was a dealer in perfumery at Draguignan when he was elected deputy for the department of the Var to the Legislative Assembly, where he joined the Girondists. Attacking the court, and the “Austrian […]

Thomas Basin

Thomas Basin in Europe Thomas Basin (1412-1491), bishop of Lisieux and historian, was born probably at Caudebec in Normandy, but owing to the devastation caused by the Hundred Years’ War, his childhood was mainly spent in moving from one place to another. In 1424 he went to the university […]

Jean Barbeyrac

Jean Barbeyrac in Europe Jean Barbeyrac (1674-1744), French jurist, the nephew of Charles Barbeyrac, a distinguished physician of Montpellier, was born at Beziers in Lower Languedoc on the 15th of March 1674. He removed with his family into Switzerland after the revocation of the edict of […]

Étienne Baluze

Étienne Baluze in Europe Étienne Baluze (1630-1718), French scholar, was born at Tulle on the 24th of November 1630. He was educated at his native town and took minor orders. As secretary to Pierre de Marca, archbishop of Toulouse, he won the appreciation of that learned prelate to such a […]

Louis Marie Cormenin de la Haye

Louis Marie Cormenin de la Haye in Europe Vicomte Louis Marie Cormenin de la Haye (1788-1868), French jurist and political pamphleteer, was born at Paris on the 6th of January 1788. His father and his grandfather both held the rank of lieutenant-general of the admiralty. At the age of […]

Jean Le Houx

Jean Le Houx in Europe Jean Le Houx, a Norman lawyer. At the beginning of the 17th century a collection of songs was published by Jean Le Houx, purporting to be the work of Olivier Basselin. There seems to be very little doubt that Le Houx was himself the author of the songs attributed to […]

Henri Basnage

Henri Basnage in Europe Henri Basnage (1615-1695) was an eminent lawyer, sieur de Franquenay. His eldest son was Jacques Basage. Jacques Basnage Jacques Basnage (1653-1723), French Protestant divine, (…) was born at Rouen in Normandy in 1653. He studied classical languages at Saumur […]

Isaac Moïse Crémieux

Isaac Moïse Crémieux in Europe Isaac Moïse Crémieux [known as Adolphe] (1796-1880), French statesman, was born at Nîmes, of a rich Jewish family. He began life as an advocate in his native town. After the revolution of 1830 he came to Paris, formed connexions with numerous political […]

Nicolas Desmarets

Nicolas Desmarets in Europe Life and Work Nicolas Desmarets, Sieur de Maillebois (1648-1721), French statesman, was born in Paris on the 10th of September 1648. His mother was the sister of J. B. Colbert, who took him into his offices as a clerk. He became counsellor to the parlement in 1672, […]

Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneutil

Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneutil in Europe Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneutil (1813-1892), French economist, was born at Seneuil (Dordogne) on the 22nd of December 1813. Seneuil was an additional name adopted from his native place. Devoting himself at first to the study of the law, he was […]


Gallicanism in Europe Gallicanism, the collective name for various theories maintaining that the church and king of France had ecclesiastical rights of their own, independent and exclusive of the jurisdiction of the pope. Gallicanism had two distinct sides, a constitutional and a dogmatic, […]

Georges Couthon

Georges Couthon in Europe Georges Couthon (1755-1794), French revolutionist, was born at Orcet, a village in the district of Clermont in Auvergne. He studied law, and was admitted advocate at Clermont in 1785. At this period he was noted for his integrity, gentle-heartedness and charitable […]

Charles Ganilh

Charles Ganilh in Europe Charles Ganilh (1758-1836), French economist and politician, was born at Allanche in Cantal on the 6th of January 1758. He was educated for the profession of law and practised as _avocat_. During the troubled period which culminated in the taking of the Bastille […]


Basoche in Europe Basoche, or Bazoche, with the analogous forms Basoque, Basogue and Bazouges; from the Lat. basilica, in the sense of law courts, a French gild of clerks, from among whom legal representatives (procureurs) were recruited. This gild was very ancient, even older than the gild […]